• rocket64peony posted an update 1 week, 1 day ago

    Individual characteristics, other than diameter, may influence aneurysm growth or rupture rates. Individual data were collated from 15 475 people under follow-up for a small aneurysm in 18 studies. The influence of co-variables (including demographics, medical and drug history) on aneurysm growth and rupture rates (analysed using longitudinal random-effects modelling and survival analysis with adjustment for aneurysm diameter) were summarized in an individual patient meta-analysis. The mean aneurysm growth rate of 2·21 mm/year was independent of age and sex. Growth rate was increased in smokers (by 0·35 mm/year) and decreased in patients with diabetes (by 0·51 mm/year). Mean arterial pressure had no effect and antihypertensive or other cardioprotective medications had only small, non-significant effects on Thiazovivin aneurysm growth, consistent with the observation that calendar year of enrolment was not associated with growth rate. Rupture rates were almost fourfold higher in women than men (P < 0·001), were double in current smokers (P = 0·001) and increased with higher blood pressure (P = 0·001). Follow-up schedules for individuals with a small AAA may need to consider diabetes and smoking, in addition to aneurysm diameter. The differing risk factors for growth and rupture suggest that a lower threshold for surgical intervention in women may be justified. No single drug used for cardiovascular risk reduction had a major effect on the growth or rupture of small aneurysms. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. "”Morbidity and mortality associated with bacterial peritonitis remain a challenge for contemporary surgery. Despite great surgical improvements, death rates have not improved. A secondary debate concerns the volume and nature of peritoneal lavage or washout—what volume, what carrier and what, if any, antibiotic or antiseptic? A literature search of experimental studies assessing the effect of peritoneal lavage following peritonitis was conducted using Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Twenty-three trials met predetermined inclusion criteria. Data were pooled and relative risks calculated. In an experimental peritonitis setting a mortality rate of 48·9 per cent (238 of 487) was found for saline lavage compared with 16·4 per cent (106 of 647) for antibiotic lavage (absolute risk reduction (ARR) 32·5 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 27·1 to 37·7) per cent; (P < 0·001). An ARR of 25·0 (95 per cent c.i. 17·9 to 31·7) per cent P < 0·001) was found for the use of saline compared with no lavage at all. The survival benefit persisted regardless of systemic antibiotic therapy. Antiseptic lavage was associated with a very high mortality rate (75·0 per cent).